CpG Adjuvant

CPG ODN (CpG oligonucleotide, CpG oligodeoxynucleotide) is a class of artificially synthesized oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) sequences containing unmethylated cytosine guanine dinucleotide (CpG), with a length of approximately 10-30bp. It can simulate exogenous DNA such as bacterial DNA, activate macrophages and dendritic cells, indirectly activate NK cells and T cells and other immune effector cells to produce natural immune response, enhance immune response intensity, and play an immune enhancer role in resisting pathogen invasion and anti-tumor. At the same time, CpG ODN has the effect of promoting TH1 biased immunity and inhibiting TH2 cell-mediated allergic reactions. Therefore, CpG-ODN has broad application prospects in the prevention and treatment of diseases such as anti-bacterial, anti-viral, and anti-allergic reactions.


According to the different sequence structural characteristics of CpG ODN and the induced immune effects, CpG is divided into three types: A, B, and C, to achieve different immune purposes:

Type A: CpG ODN is centered on a palindrome sequence containing CpG dinucleotides, with poly G tails at both ends, and the phosphate diester bond backbone is partially thiolated. Through the palindrome sequence and poly G to form a higher structure, it can activate plasmacytoid dendritic cells to produce a large amount of type I interferon, but it is weak against B cells;

Type B: CpG ODN is a fully thiolated linear CpG ODN, which has strong immune stimulation activity against B cells, but cannot activate plasmacytoid dendritic cells;

Type C: CpG-ODN is a class of fully thiolated CpG ODN, which can form dimers through palindrome sequences, and has the activity of both type A and type B CpG-ODN, which can activate both plasmacytoid dendritic cells and B cells.